From The Page (June, 1971):
Saturday, June 19, 1971 (A.S. VI) south of San Jose.
|10:00 -||Qualification of new fighters by the Earl Marshall. Remember to bring your waiver.|
|11:00 -||Grand March, followed by the Court of King Hagen. After the march, and before the challenges, new weapons will be inspected by the Earl Marshall. Large Households with many weapons will have their weapons inspected as soon as they arrive. Remember that no weapon may be used on the field unless it has been approved by the Earl Marshall.|
|12:00 -||Challenge matches. Register your challenges with the Mistress of the Lists before this time. As many challenges as are possible will be fought. Also, you must register for the Crown Lists by this time.|
|1:30 -||Start of the Crown Lists. Competition for the Crown of the West.|
Those with suggestions for further activities should contact His Majesty or the Tourneymaster. Since we are in a county park, be sure to pick up and carry back with you any wine bottles, also pick up and place in trash cans all debris in your area. Finally, as in almost all public areas, dogs must be kept on a leash.
REVELS: There will be a revels for the Province of Southern Shores following the tourney. We shall make merry with song and dance beginning an hour after sunset at the manor at (address omitted) in San Jose. Those who would be interested in a provincial tournament to be held in September should contact Lady Felice of Mayhem House at (phone omitted).
From the History (by Wilhelm):
Held in Coyote Creek Park, San Jose, California. Hagen and Ruth reigned. King Hagen gave Awards of Arms to André de Sevastopol and Elizabeth Belleclerke. Crown Lists were held. Before the final round Frederick of Holland was made a Master, and Kevin Peregrynne and Paul of Bellatrix were knighted. Sir James Greyhelm won, defeating Sir Paul of Bellatrix. Verena of Laurelin was his lady. Jerald of Galloway gave the MGC to Sir Paul of Bellatrix. The Order of the Wooden Spoon Competition, for Salads, was won by Sharon the Meek.
See Photos from this event.
“THIS IS NOW Hear-Say! After Hourai's knighting, the kingdom bumped into a similar situation. James and Paul were one-and-one in the Finals, Jim was already a Knight (brand new at Hagen and Ruth's Coronation), but Paul wasn't. Hagen called the Chivalry together and after much discussion, decided to knight Paul. Paul can recite the drama when Edwin and Caradoc publicly objected during court. The bit of inside information that I have is that Mistress Geraldine of Toad Hall leaned over and, after the decision was made, whispered into Hagen's ear" Well now it's hit the fan ... why not spread it around a bit?" I leave it to Fleig to tell his own story, but I (after being wiped out in the first round again) was astonished when I was Knighted.
“... but it will come as no surprise to anybody that I have always viewed Knights' council as a conflict. With stick-jocks at one pole and chivalry-idealists at the other and anybody who claims to hold the high-ground at one end or the other is lying.
“When we can get around to situations that I can give personal and present at witness chivalry council testimony to, I will.” – Kevin Peregrynne
“Okay, we seemed to have jumped to June, AS VI, running us past some pivotal events that happened in March, when Hagen won the crown.
“... the decision of the Knights Council at the Summer Tourney, AS VI, was to knight Paul if he won. This, at least, was the agreement among the knights that Hagen said he would follow. Paul was relatively new to the group and far more interested in the fighting than any other part of it, as I think he will agree. He also has the ability of a natural fighter combined with the ability to analyze what everyone else has done and come up with new interpretations and expansions to the knowledge of the discipline. In the finals, James won one, then Paul won one. Hagen chose to interpret that as the "win" and called Paul forward to be knighted. Edwin and Caradoc chose to interpret that as a challenge and as the Herald (I believe it was Randal) said "mindful of the wishes of your peers" They stepped forward and said, "AGAINST the wishes of your peers." I'm told that Hagen was perfectly willing to say "all right, AGAINST the wishes of your peers." but I blew up completely and stormed out of the Royal Pavilion (where I'd been standing as Seneschal) and called them idiots and various other things. I hate to see a scene spoiled by non-scheduled theatrics.
“Probably not one of my best moments, but things calmed down, Paul offered to not be knighted, Edwin decided that was enough of a statement of chivalry to say it was okay by him to knight Paul, and the ceremony went on apace.
“And actually, Phil, as I recall, raising you and Flieg to the Chivalry was also discussed in the meeting and agreed to. Despite your showing in that particular list, we all agreed that the two of you had earned your spurs through all of your activities (though spurs were not being given out at the time).
“And I'm still confused about the timing of Charles being knighted and that convocation of Chivalry.
“Oh, and has anyone else mentioned that Charles was probably one of the handsomest young men in the local SCA at the time and cut quite a swathe through the women of the group?” – Stefan de Lorraine, who remembers Robert of Dunharrow half-drawing his sword to protect himself and Geraldine from Edwin and Caradoc as they backed away from my Advance in Wrath. Interesting snapshots the mind retains ...
“As his excellency [Stefan de Lorraine] remembers, Randal was the herald. After the argument had raged for a while, in fierce whispers over my head (I was kneeling), Randal leaned over and said to me, "You can stop this, you know." That's when I got up and offered not to be knighted. Also, Hagan DID say, just as Stephen charged, "Well then, despite the wishes of his peers." – Paul of Bellatrix“Randall was a heck of a nice guy whom I've actually seen once in the last several years when he was back in the states. As I recall, he teaches in Scotland now, though I may have the country wrong. I remember killing him in a tiny renaissance faire we were at. I had him on my knees, did a beautiful shield hook, hit him over the head with a mace, and staggered off the field crying out in agony, having had my thumb between my shield and his for the shield hook. Such fun.” – Steven MacEanruig
“Hagen, in my memory of this, was in mail (shiny - stainless?) hauberk, and crown. Stefan charged out from behind the thrones with all the lethality and determination (and I admired his venom) of the strongest terrier ever invented (GREAT seneschal drill) and went directly (can you say SHREDDER?) into Edwin's and Caradoc's faces. My emotional read was that Hagen would have happily snapped either or both of them over his knee.” – Kevin Peregrynne“That hauberk was made entirely of plated split-rings. They were maybe 1/2" in diameter. I borrowed it to go to Westercon (if memory serves...) and Lynn Hollander wore it for the Lampoon "Tolkien" skit ("Boggies of the Sty" and all that). After the 'con it was returned to Hagen.
“I think it weighed a bit less than 30 pounds. As I recall it had brass split rings for the bottom dags.” – Hal Ravn“The really shitty thing was the theft of Hagen's mail an event later in their reign. I can say little else than while he and Ruth slept in the Royal pavilion (in it's first months' existence) the mail disappeared.
“* (I cheated because my father could liberate durable metals from the refinery's scrap piles, and I did something similar) ... the white Knight was only an accident in one time line.
“Paul and I just reviewed his memories of this tiny chunk of time (which happened some 10 minutes before I got caught in history) at Mists Coronet last week, there are NO disagreements.
“Did Jerry P. to make a good impression on ANYBODY?” – Kevin Peregrynne - Go Stefan ... Go it's only another year.
“This commentary brings up the Three Randalls. They were all active about the same time, and each had something in common with the others. First of all, I believe the Randall of the Far North mentioned by Paul and Steven was actually Ranulf of the Far North, though his real name was, indeed, Randall. Ranulf, along with Bergen Von Rausch and Elrin of Hrassvelg and Elrin's then wife Katrina, founded the Province of Shasta, which was a fixture of the Kingdom for several years until they all went their separate ways. Ranulf was a dedicated fighter who was, unfortunately, dedicated to a lot of other things, like getting through school, and was not able to concentrate enough to get knighted before reality led him on other paths. The other two Randalls are, of course, Randall of High Tower (Randall Garrett) who has appeared in these missives several times, and Randy Millen (sp?), known in the SCA as Boncouer. While a person of immense dignity, he insisted on being called Randy (when he wasn't being Boncouer) to distinguish himself from High Tower. A fascinating individual who made his own mark on the SCA. Perhaps William the Lucky, who knew him better, could comment?” – Stefan de Lorraine“If at any time, however, someone is talking about Randall and political machinations, we are talking about High Tower, not one of the others.“You are correct. Ranulf of the Far North it was.” – Steven MacEanruigAccording to Paul of Bellatrix, the Herald was actually Randall of Hightower, and not Rannulf ... -- Hirsch (December, 2014)“Unless I have mistaken him for another Randall who was a Shastan, Randy's mundane last name was Rogers - he told a hilarious tale of his efforts to convince his fellow students at Oxford (?) that his name REALLY WAS Randy Rogers, not a dirty joke at their expense. (For those not up on their contemporary Brit slang it would translate as horny f**cker.)” – Kevin Peregrynne“What makes the name truly hilarious from the Brit viewpoint is that "roger" means the same thing as "randy" when it comes to slanging around....” – Hilary of Serendip“Bonceur stories could proliferate almost indefinitely. My favorite one was when he encountered David Green (Ruthven of Rockridge) at the San Francisco opera in the men's room line. David was on the BoD at the time. So there he was standing in the line when Bonceur's impressive voice suddenly tolled out "Ah, your excellency, so pleased to see you here." accompanied by a deep bow.” – Steven MacEanruig“Deep bow??? The way I heard it, he fell to his knees.” – Dorothea of Caer-Myrddin“When I heard the tale, B. said "Ah, Your Serenity ..." - which sounds plausible, that being the title the Bodbeings arrogated to themselves when they were playing Imperial Electors.” – Hilary of Serendip“Actually, the way I heard it was that the Heralds, mostly egged on by Sarkanyi Gero, who never met a sumptuary law he didn't like, were all for the Board calling themselves the Electors, but the Board had a rush of sanity (or felt a wave of protest) and decided that the Board should stay in the 20th Century. Boncuer was, of course, a Herald, and wont to grab any stick and run with it without finding out if the stick wanted to go anywhere ...” – Stefan de Lorraine, who thinks that keeping the BOD in the 20th century is a really fine idea.“The BoD's decision to stick to the 20th Century came much later, after the flack about the BoD giving out Pelicans. Before that the BoD had one foot in each period. I think the Imperial Electors idea came from Jon de Cles.” - Wilhelm von Schlüssel“Yes - this is spot on the mark. I read all the surviving files - several file drawers' worth - during my first few months as Steward, and the Board formally abandoned the Imperium idea two or three years down the road from the time under discussion. It continued to use the vocabulary in its own documents for two or three years after that, with gradually diminishing frequency ...” - Hilary of Serendip“Well, when David tells the tale, the greeting was "Fancy meeting you here, milord," booming from the back of the urinal queue. And he has the advantage (?) of having been there.” – Rima of Rockridge“I also remember being in one of the porta-potties at a tournament when someone was going down the line trying to find an empty one. Knock, knock. Occupied. Knock, knock, Occupied. Knock, knock, and Boncuer's voice announcing "I Am Within."” – Steven MacEanruig“My favorite Boncouer story was when he switched off the microphone and stepped ostentatiously in front of it and proceeded to rattle the partitions three rooms away with his un-assisted voice at Twelfth Night at the Kensington Unitarian Church. He, Randall of High Tower and John ap Griffin are my top three voice heralds of all time.
“Help me out a bit here ... I only remember Gonwyndlyn of Hrasvelg as Elrin's first wife but that was during our Golden Rivers' days and we could have missed a previous wife in the earlier Bay Area years.
“Jerald may have up to date data on Boncoeur...” – Kevin Peregrynne“No, you are probably right about Gonwyndlyn being Karen's SCA name; I mis-remembered it. Very nice lady, but when she and Scott (Elrin) Arquette split up, she disappeared entirely from everyone's radar, even though there were many ladies, my own included, who really liked her.” – Stefan de Lorraine“That was Karen's SCA name. I can remember what we once called Hrassvelg's day. Elriin got knighted and laureled and Gonwyndlyn got laureled all at the same tourney. She was not in attendance, so Scott returned home and went to bed, leaving the two laurels and white belt hanging on the bedroom doorknob for her to find when she returned.” – Steven MacEanruig“I never meant to imply that the Shasta crew ever lived in the Bay Area (though I saw Bergen (Larry Penland) at a wedding a few years back and have no idea where they are living these days). It's just that my parents and brother lived in Redding, so I saw a lot of the Shasta crew and thought of them as a major part of the Kingdom, even if they were a four hour drive away. They certainly had a bigger impact on the Kingdom than their size warranted. Who can forget the Shasta Mercenary Company motto? Or their battle cry?” – Stefan de Lorraine, who always considered himself an honorary Shastan“More of my imprecision - I was referring to Patti and my pre-Sacramento period when we lived in the East Bay, not inferring that the Shastans ever did (that mountain is too cumbersome to move around with ease).” – Kevin Peregrynne“Scott (Elriin) is somewhere down around Salinas, I think. I saw him at 12th night last year. Larry (Bergen) is still in Redding, I think. Sam Brown (Maelgwynne de Lyonesse) still sees him frequently.
“For those that don't know, the motto of the Shastan mercenaries was "We may be dumb but we're sure stupid." The battle cry was a simple “stupid”.
“I do remember Shastan talent contests. The one I most enjoyed were where William the Lucky and I played a duet for spurs using Elriin as the instrument. He was wearing his Silver Mullet rowelled spurs and we knelt behind him and spun them. I used to bug Elriin at knight's fealty ceremonies by kneeling behind him and spinning his spurs as the herald read the oath.
“But are you a real honorary Shastan?” – Steven MacEanruig“Oh, yes. I think I've already mentioned the time when he was extolling that new-fangled Atenveldtian invention, households, and when we disagreed he decided it was because we *didn't understand* and repeated the entire argument over, and he spoke not in sentences but in paragraphs, and got livid if one interrupted.” – Dorothea of Caer-Myrddin
“A good chunk of SCA history and a fair amount of the rules and traditions of the group evolved from the relationships of those houses.” – Steven MacEanruig
“This is probably a pretty good place to add to Robert's comments of some time back about the early days of SCA armoring. At this time, around AS IV-VI, the focus of armoring efforts shifted mainly to the Chaos Manor garage, presided over by Jon the Lean, who lived with us at the time. An organization called the Armorer's Guild had sprung up around that time (and this is probably the first time in 20 years I've remembered that name) and they accumulated a lot of metal cutting and shaping gear that appeared in our garage. We had people from all over the kingdom appearing in that garage to work on weaponry and armor, even Caradoc and Edwin showed up from time to time. This sometimes made for potential embarrassment as our doorbell would ring at odd moments and we'd find an armorer on the doorstep looking for the key to the garage.
“I remember James Greyhelm showing up one afternoon when Luise and I had decided to take advantage of a rare period of no one else in the house ... (another memory that hadn't come to the forefront in many many years.)
“The Battered Helm took shape in that garage, as a matter of fact. Jon and MacEanruig and Eliazar ben David (Louis Freeman) and Warren the Strange were occupied in a project which they studiously kept me away from. I found out why when I became the first recipient of the honor. Perhaps Jon or Steven could comment on how the object was created.” – Stefan de Lorraine“As I recall it, the Battered Helm was a creation of William the Lucky and myself. We used one of the old Freon gas drum helms (mine, I think), beat it up as much as we could, cut the blade buried in out of sheet metal, hacksawed a slit in the helm, and pounded in the blade. Jon and Warren and Eliazar may have been involved, but William and I were the main instigators. We wanted to encourage excellence in dying. A few months earlier, I had sponsored a contest at a small prize tourney with a pair of old bayonets going to the best death and Bill and I thought making such an event a permanent part of the kingdom would be a Good Thing.” – Steven MacEanruig“Just our own tiny tidbit of OBH lore:
“Patrice is to the best of my knowledge the only non-combatant female to have earned the award ... the rose in the grille-work and the heart-shaped kiss/puncture on the helm's cheek are her contributions. Purgatorio chess game - Douglas longshanks defeated me in the best mace fight I ever experienced Black-vs-White champion.” – Kevin Peregrynne“And does anyone want to tell the story of the Society for Medieval Combat (or Society of Middle-aged Wombats, as it was called in some circles)? I think by the time we are covering it had already arrived and departed the scene...” – Stefan de Lorraine, who is always rather shocked to realize how much of the early history of the SCA took place in that house, as well as all the others.“The Association for Medieval combat was, as I recall just an association of a small group of fighters (including myself, Richard the Short, Edwin Bersark, Jamie Oakenshield (I think), Robert of Dunharrow, Bela of Eastmarch, and several others who I don't recall), so we could pool our resources -- financially mainly, so we could acquire materials for gear. We met on a monthly basis and collected 25 cent dues and a few who were financially better off sometimes loaned the treasury money so the Association could purchase bulk quantities of materials to be sold to individual members at slightly above cost at unit prices. This allowed us to buy a hide of leather, box of rivets, sheet of steel, etc., and then sell a piece of leather, a rivet, a piece of steel, etc., to a member at the item's pro-rated cost. This lasted for less than a year, and died for lack of participation.” – Henrik of Havn
“Some background: At October V Crown, Stefan de Lorraine got up and announced
that the Council of Seneschals would be holding regular meetings, and anyone
who wanted to know what was happening in the Kingdom should come. Being
nosey, I went. From this, much else followed, over the course of several years.
“Since everyone else in Headlesse House was going to want a report, I took notes. When I got caught at it, I got drafted as secretary. At which point I was sucked in as a deputy seneschal. There was actually something for the various deputies to do Steve instituted Throne Seneschals -- someone to stand beside the Throne (or accompany the King around, if He preferred) and provide service and/or conversation and advice. From which you may correctly infer that the hordes of hangers - on we see now had not yet appeared.” – William the Lucky
“Having had a long and fruitful association with William as a Great Officer of State (or several - considering the corporate level stuff), this has to count as one of the great pieces of serendipity in Kingdom history. He was a worthy successor to Stefan.” – Kevin Peregrynne“I had started fighting over the winter (AS V), but managed not to get "qualified" at March Crown, or at Beltane, or at June Crown. So I had lots of time to spend as Throne Seneschal during the June Crown Lists. And I was standing at King Hagen's elbow when the last fight (only?) of the semi-finals finished. Which gave me at opportunity to trigger one of the bigger political flaps of my career (arguably, the biggest).“In the early days, when it came to conducting routine support matters during court, the King and Queen had two groups from which they could draw. The first was members of their own household (a system which sometimes worked and sometimes did not), and the second was the throne seneschals. Most of the functions performed today by the Royal entourage were performed by the throne seneschals. In fact, it was not the least uncommon for the K&Q to show at an event with zero retainers in tow, and simply have the throne seneschals corps (or even members of the local group) perform all of duties now associated with a Royal household.
“Today, to the best of my knowledge this is not done (unless the Royals are traveling a very great distance -- but even then, I am aware of Western Royals who have gone to great lengths to import their own retainers while attending Pennsic). I suspect it is because the duties of the seneschalate and Royal retainers have become highly specialized.” – Andrew of Riga“In the early days before the establishment of the "civil service" of Seneschals the Crown relied on various individuals for support depending on the nature of the question(s). Frequently the Herald was consulted as to what was happening on the field, the Chancellor was consulted on legalities, and the seneschal was consulted on procedures. Always, the Crown's own household was consulted. These positions grew as their need did.” – David of Illwherlane
“I remember partly cloudy skies. Which does NOT mean that Paul was NOT in full sun it's that Patti and others clearly remember the clouds parting and a sunbeam zapping me as I got the accolade some several minutes later. (By the by, I don't know how precedence is determined, but Fleig is chronologically senior to me by roughly five minutes)” – Kevin Peregrynne“King Hagen (prompted as necessary by the Herald) "Right mindful of your prowess upon the field, and responsive to the wishes of your peers ..."
“My mind pictures them in the order stated - Caradoc on Edwin's heels. But both assumed the same wide-legged and arms-crossed stance and were hairy and kilted, so I could easily be wrong. The dialogue (to confirm Bill's recounting) came out as In spite ... In spite ... (in chorus) of the wishes of his peers!"” – Kevin Peregrynne“(Enter Stefan de Lorraine from the right, carrying Seneschal's red staff. He plants himself dramatically between Paul and the other two.) Stefan (as accurately quoted by Kevin earlier) "You sons of bitches!"
“My impression is that shrubbery and small warm-blooded creatures were fatally injured at much longer range - I never before or since saw Stefan that angry.” – Kevin Peregrynne“(King Hagen starts out from the Throne, handing the Great Sword of State to the Herald.) Randal (handing it right back) "You may want this, Your Majesty."
“(Sword wobbling pendulum wise to-and-fro) My impression that it was either stick the sword into the ground or into one or the other of the two. Hagen wasn't happy either.” – Kevin Peregrynne“(It seemed to last forever, but was probably only 30 minutes or so. Eventually, they disperse, the King comes back to the Throne, and the ceremony starts over.)
“James neglects that Paul came off the field after the first match and wondered aloud why his shield-hooks weren't working. The chorus from the Queen-Candidates' support crowd at Ruth's left of "He's left-handed!" I think may have embarrassed Paul just a tiny little bit.”(End of "The Knighting of Paul of Bellatrix")
“Paul was doing an interesting imitation of a spectator at a tennis match.” – Kevin Peregrynne
“6/19/VI was the day I somehow came out of my pupal stage and began to make a real nuisance of myself (how can a chunk of cloth and a hardware store cut-to-measure swag lamp accessory have such an effect?) much, I'm sure, to the regret of some of our correspondents ... and then Jim made me Earl Marshal within a year - the rest is violence.” – Kevin Peregrynne
“I mostly recall a sense of frustration, since I was still in Kansas at the time, not getting out of the air force until June 27. At the time I would call Stefan de Lorraine (Steve Perrin) every Sunday evening (at least I think it was Sunday). I do remember that he gave me an earful about Paul's knighting.” – Steven MacEanruig
“I'm pretty well tapped out on this tourney. The only other comment I have is to ask if this was the one where half of Three Mountains showed up in rabbit fur bikinis (Okay, only a couple of women were wearing these, but they made an impression) and claimed that they were all Northern Barbarians?” – Stefan de Lorraine
“Did I see reference to creation of the Chivalry at "12th Night III"?
Perhaps a typo. The Chivalry (first 12), Laurel (first 2), and
Dukedom (first 3) all began at 12th Night II. Awards of Arms (first 5)
and the first Court Baron were at 12th Night III.
“I used to run into Barry of Judah at RenFaire every year until recently (when I quit working it after 29 years). When he was a teen-aged fighter, coming down from Stockton, he was thought by some to not count blows. However, once when I was sure I'd hit him on the top of the helm in a melee and he went over backward to the ground, I later found him running around still fighting. I took him to task about it, but he swore that my sword never touched him. Sure enough, Geri's films showed him a good inch ahead of the sword as he fell. It was a strange defensive tactic, but he wasn't being dishonest.
“Paul's knighting I don't think it came after the semi-finals, as was said, but rather after James & Paul had each won one fight of a best-of-3 final. Anyone else remember that?” - Robert of Dunharrow
“I concur with Robert. It was after the semi finals, as I recall, that the chivalry met to decide whether to knight Paul, and only after he had won one of the final matches that Hagen, prompted by my ever-helpful Deputy Seneschal, decided to knight him.” - Stefan de Lorraine, who hopes he hasn't cut up Robert's comments so badly they are not comprehensible.“Just to reiterate my own earlier observations, the knighting and accompanying drama was after the first two bouts of the finals - a gaggle of us including myself, Patti, Carol, Verena, Kristina of the Runes, Kathea verKaysc and others (for some reason I remember the ladies, and no other (non-finalist) gentlemen - that dominant Y chromosome again I guess [a prettier cluster of blondes and red heads I can't imagine being among]) were clustered just to Ruth's left. The ladies spent a good portion of their time fanning James and (no kidding) peeling grapes and feeding them to him in the shade while poor Paul was kneeling in the hot sun with hotter words passing above him.
“Until the center-stage stuff began happening, Paul had been with us between bouts too (refer to my mention of his forgetting Jim was left-handed in the first bout - Paul won the second bout and then the proverbial bucolic by-product impacted the rotary atmosphere impeller).
“Things have changed over the years, but at the time, what I refer to as the younger crowd were pretty chummy - we may have been partisan in rooting for one fighter or another but we were supportive of each other when getting trapped in the power structure was impending.
“Ah! To be young again.” - Kevin Peregrynne
Description of this event,
© Copyright 1980 by William R. Keyes (Wilhelm von Schlüssel)
This is from The History of the West Kingdom, Volume 1 (the only volume produced). When reading this text, please keep in mind the following disclaimer:
Disclaimer: This history may have errors in it, as much of the detail is “remembered” history, or as one of the cover pages of the original type-written manuscript states “The material within is derived from the information printed in The Crown Prints and in The Page, and from the memories of the participants.” The original document was typed on onion-skin paper, with hand-written notes (often in the margins). All attempts have been made to reconcile the notes with the original document.
Annotations, when they are added, are from The Annotated History of the West, Volume 1, which is the same text as Master Wilhelm's mentioned above, with commentary from members of the SCA who were active at the time of the event, and are added to help clarify questions and expand on what happened and why. This volume is copyright © Ken Mayer (Hirsch von Henford).
The West Kingdom History Website was created by and is maintained by Hirsch von Henford (mka Ken Mayer).